In part, because the writings of Marx are focused on both primitive and modern accumulation processes of capitalism, the word accumulation has taken on the tone of a loaded vice word in worker-cooperatives. The author writes that the resistance to using the concept of accumulation has led to theoretical problems for cooperatives. All enterprises accumulate a surplus that is left over after wages are paid. Is the surplus invested while maintaining the same work schedule, or do the workers decide to work fewer hours? These are problems worker-coops must face squarely and work into their theories.