Can a Complex Civilization be Egalitarian? The Case of Ancient India

To most archeologists and anthropologists, once societies become complex – cities, writing, specialization of labor – inequality is inevitable.

Even Marxian archeologists like Gordon V Childe thought this. But this article argues that India’s civilization from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE had carefully laid out cities, writing, plumbing and a system of weights and measures without evidence of any ruling class.

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